All of my turned pieces start as a solid block of wood. While the wood lathe spins the wood, I shape the object by guiding various turning chisels to remove unwanted mass. I never know what is inside a piece of wood. Unexpected bumps, shapes or distortions in the wood can turn up in the process and may sometimes change the intended look.

Beyond the basic techniques, I use several additional techniques to add individuality and life to each piece. Trademark finial or spirals that sprout from the tops of lids and bottoms of larger show pieces. Works often sit askew: I like the way they sit lopsided. I often add feet to my vessels not only to raise the piece off the ground, but to give the piece a sense of movement This graceful touch adds life to my forms and directs attention to the juxtaposition of the delicate legs and the larger hollow vessel the legs are holding up. Many of my pieces receive a lacquer finish that has been rubbed to a satin finish, followed by a coat of wax, then it is buffed to its final sheen.

I use eccentric turning in many of my sculptural forms and for the box finials. In this method of turning, I turn a single piece multiple times; each time on a different axis. After a vessel is turned I may add color and texturing to enhance the grain, emphasize a contrast, or evoke an emotion.

I enhance some forms with slanted symmetry. Using this technique, I form one angled shape by inserting a slanted, segmented ring of wood to join two horizontal, hollow sections. The added ring can be of varying woods, finishes or color.

Another embellishment technique called green turning or wet turning requires freshly cut wood to be turned to its final shape and thickness. As this green turned wood dries, it shrinks and moves in somewhat predictable and not entirely controllable ways. Depending on factors in the wood, i.e. moisture content, presence of knots, crotch wood or burl wood, the shrinkage can warp, twist, crack, or split open the original shape. The surface may also develop a wrinkled or fuzzy texture.